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Router, Siwtches and Ethernet

Router, Siwtches and Ethernet


Ethernet was first introduced in 1980 which had a max throughput of 10 megabits per second. 15 years later in 1995, Fast Ethernet was released. Which is an updated version of Ethernet, and has throughput of 100 megabits per second and can cover distance of up to 10km. After which after only 3 years another version of Ethernet known as Gigabit Ethernet was released which has a maximum throughput of 1,000 megabits or 1 gigabit per second and can cover distance of up to 70km.


RJ45 connector is a standard for physical connection of Ethernet and is almost used in every connection of Ethernet devices. There are various cable standard for Ethernet from Cat-5 to Cat-6a. Cat-5 is a type of Ethernet cable widely used for Fast Ethernet which allows speed of up to 100Mbps but is not recommended for new installations. Cat-5e is a type of cable which is recognized by TIA/EIA, which allows speed of up to 125Mbps. It is an enhanced form of cat-5, which can be used for connection of even Gigabit Ethernet. Cat-6 is a type of cable which is recognized by TIA/EIA, which allows speed of up to 10Gbps, but only up to distance of 55 meters. Cat-6 cable has an outer foil to protect the twisted pair wires inside the Ethernet cable which also helps prevent crosstalk and noise interference.Cat-6a is a type of cable which is recognized by TIA/EIA, which is capable of maintaining speed over longer distance, it uses shielding which makes it less flexible than cat-6.


Switch is a device that is connects multiple devices together, manages ports and manages VLAN security settings in a network. It operates in data link layer, which is second layer of OSI model. Data transmission takes place in form of frames and Packets in switch. Multiple numbers of devices connects to switch port in order to communicate with each other. A switch can have 24 or 48 ports.  Switch is an active device that uses memory, software, and processor to forward data frames efficiently. Switch broadcast incoming signal in the network at initial state as it does not know which device is connected to which port and the connected device’s physical (MAC) address, after broadcast it saves MAC address and the port that the device is connected in its memory as CAM (Content addressable Memory) table. After which the switch is able to forward the data frames from sender to receiver as per nature of the data as unicast or multicast frames. Switch can operate in both half and full duplex mode with no collision even in full duplex mode, it can also operate in speed of up to 1 Gigabit per second. Switch is used in a network as it is cheaper than router and can connect to more number of nodes than a router can.


Router is a networking device that connects a LAN (Local Area Network) to other LANs. Router operates in network layer, which is third layer of OSI model. Data transmission takes place in form of packets in router. A normal router can have up to 8 ports. Routers are used in LAN (Local Area Network), MAN (Metropolitan Area Network), and WAN (Wide Area Network). Router uses IP (Internet Protocol) to route data packets in the network. Router maintains Routing table in order to carry out carry out forwarding of data packets efficiently on the network. Every port on router has its own broadcast domain. Router operates in full duplex mode, it operates in up to 100Mbps in wireless interface and up to 1Gbps in wired interface, new routers even support speed of up to 10Gbps. Router are expensive as compared to switch and offer comparably low number of ports.


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